Albert Bandura Self Efficacy Theory

NRS 429VN: Topic 1 DQ 2
Describe a health promotion model used to initiate behavioral changes. How does this model help in teaching behavioral changes? What are some of the barriers that affect a patient’s ability to learn? How does a patient’s readiness to learn, or readiness to change, affect learning outcomes?

Albert Bandura in 1977 developed a theory that is widely used in the teaching profession but is also used in the Nursing profession as it helps the Nurse plan teaching and for the patient to motivate behavioral changes to improve health. In his model he believes that all individuals can bring out outcomes and can attain goals, as Mr. Bandura states, “how well one can execute courses of action required to deal with prospective situations (1977).In simple terms it means how well will a patient succeed is determined by how much they believe in themselves. In his theory he states that there are three things that affect self-efficacy theory. Those three factors are


One’s knowledge, expectations, and attitudes


Social norms and others influence on the individual

Personal/Cognitive factors

Person’s skills, person’s ability to practice and self-efficacy.

Efficacy expectations also have four elements that can help the individual achieve their goals, they are mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, social persuasion, and physiological states. These four elements in the theory guides the individual to make judgment and make decisions into accomplishing the task (Bourne, J., Smeltzer,S., Kelly, M., 2021)

This Model helps the nurse to teach behavioral changes in the clinical setting as it helps the nurse better assess the patients’ perceptions in learning. By following the model, the nurse can implement teaching care plan based on the patients’ individual needs. The self-efficacy theory is a great theory to use as it gives the patient control in an environment where someone might feel lost and incapacitated due to an illness or circumstances. Their level of self-efficacy theory will help guide the care to the client and determine outcomes.

There are many barriers that affect the learning process in a patient, some of them are cultural, socioeconomic, and sociopolitical. Other barriers are sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, immigration status, environmental factors, poverty, lack of education, and access to health care. Disabilities among an individual is also a barrier to learning. All the above mentioned can hinder education in the patient and equate to poor health outcomes (Whitney,2018).

A patient’s readiness to learn or readiness to change his/her behavior can affect learning outcomes. If the patient is ready to learn he/she will more likely be an active participant in the learning process, asking questions, forming ideas, and developing a care plan specific for their needs. A patient that is an active participant in their healthcare will likely have better outcomes in their health recovery process.


Bourne, M.J., Smeltzer, S. C., Kelly, M.M., (2021). Nurse Education in Practice. Clinical teacher self-efficacy: A concept analysis, 52


Whitney, S. (2018). Teaching and Learning Styles. Health Promotion: Health and Wellness Across the Continuum.

response 1

I agree that the self efficacy model is a great one to use when planning care for patients. Like you mentioned, alot of times our patients feel as if they don’t have control in their own care. I believe that it would also generate more positive outcomes for patients when they are more active in their care.

resonse 2

I did not read or come across Bandura’s theory until your post. Bandura makes a good point that one cannot be successful in learning until they believe in themselves. This seems to be efficient in several types of learning because when one focuses on the negative, they are unable to retain information and typically create negative factors which create barriers to learning. For a patient to believe in themselves means that they are ready to learn and willing to act regarding their own health care. I researched the Pender theory, and the theory is like Bandura’s theory. The Pender theory also focuses on social, environmental factors that affect the way that one perceives themselves and the world around them. It was found that when people understood the world around them and had a positive perception of themselves, they were more willing to learn, understand and participate in their health care.

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