Cancer and Women’s Health Research

To prepare:
Select a type of cancer associated with women’s or men’s health such as breast, cervical, or ovarian cancer in women and prostate cancer in men Cancer and Women’s Health Research .
Locate and review articles examining the type of cancer you selected.
Review the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force article. Think about available preventive services that providers might recommend for patients at risk of this type of cancer.
Select two of the following factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Reflect on how these factors might impact decisions related to preventive services.
Consider drug treatment options for patients diagnosed with the type of cancer you selected including short-term and long-term implications of the treatments.
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To complete
Write a 2- to 3- page paper that addresses the following:

Describe available preventive services that providers might recommend for patients at risk of the type of cancer you selected.
Explain how the factors you selected might impact decisions related to preventive services.
Describe drug treatment options for patients diagnosed with the type of cancer you selected. Explain the short-term and long-term implications of these treatments Cancer and Women’s Health Research.
References to include in paper
https://www.ahrq.gov/professionals/clinicians-providers/guidelines-recommendations/guide/section2.html
Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2015). Seidel\’s guide to physical examination (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.

Sullivan, D. D. (2012). Guide to clinical documentation (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis.
Over the recent past, cancer has become a menacing disease to the wellbeing of the general population and women in particular. Statistics reveal that incidences of cancer mortalities have more than doubled. However, efforts are underway to ensure that the various cancerous conditions are managed before they can cause more afflictions to women. According to statistics from the World Health Organization, cervical cancer and breast cancer are the leading cancers affecting women worldwide. In fact, breast cancer has been pronounced as the most common of them all bar skin cancer. Consequently, mortality rates for the condition have increased. However, several preventative services have been instituted to prevent the development of skin cancer. These services have had a profound impact on efforts to reduce incidences of the disease.

Given the technological advances in healthcare, providers have learned to conduct early screening of the condition before it fully develops. The usage of breast screening mammography has been advised for women who may be predisposed to the condition. The usage of breast mammography helps medical professionals to identify whether the cells that cause breast cancer are available or not and appropriate action adopted (Ball et al., 2015 ). In the event that the diagnosis is negative, a risk assessment needs to be conducted to determine whether one is at risk of having the condition sometime in future. The risk assessment is then followed by the prescription of preventative medications such as raloxifene and tamoxifene (“Final Recommendations”, n.d). These drugs are selective estrogen receptor modulators and have been demonstrated to reduce the incidence of cancer in women by a significant percentage.

Genetics and age play a significant role in the development of breast cancer. According to Nikiia and Oulun (2013), women who inherit a deleterious gene known as PALB2 will develop the condition when they are 70 years of age. Further, the incidences of cancer have been shown to be directly proportional to age. For these reasons, it would appear that the decision to undertake genetic screening of the condition is more urgent in middle-aged women. Also, only women of age 35 years and above can be given the above-mentioned drugs. Thus, age and genetics play a significant role in the decisions related to the above-mentioned preventative services.

The confirmation of breast cancer in a patient is followed by a pharmacological intervention to prevent the metastasis of cancerous cells around the breast area. Currently, oncologists use estrogen modulators and chemotherapy as the drug-based therapy for the condition. In specific terms, the Food and Drug Administration has approved drugs such as Abemaciclib, Abraxane, Anastrozole, Cyclophosphamide, and Everolimus amongst others for the management of breast cancer (“Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer”, n.d). The FDA has approved 62 drugs in total for the management of the condition Cancer and Women’s Health Research.

The above-mentioned drug options have both short-term and long-term impacts on the state of breast cancer within a patient. According to research, the utilization of estrogen modulators helps in the prevention of the condition over a long period. This ensures that even those women with predisposing conditions to breast cancer can survive for long without the condition becoming symptomatic (“Chemotherapy & Other Systemic Therapies”, n.d). Nevertheless, the chemotherapeutic drugs only help with the remission of cancer pain over a short period of time. Thus, the two treatments have varied objectives regarding breast cancer.

Therefore, breast cancer is an important condition that requires the attention of the healthcare sector. Age and genetics have been demonstrated to have an important role in the development of the condition. Because of their importance, preventative services such as risk assessment take them into consideration. Also, efforts have been made through chemotherapy and estrogen receptor modulators to hamper the progress of the condition in women.

References

Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2015). Seidel\’s guide to physical examination (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.

Chemotherapy & Other Systemic Therapies for Breast Cancer | NYU Langone Health. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://nyulangone.org/conditions/breast-cancer/treatments/chemotherapy-other-systemic-therapies-for-breast-cancer

Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer – National Cancer Institute. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/drugs/breast

Final Recommendation Statement: Breast Cancer: Screening – US Preventive Services Task Force. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/RecommendationStatementFinal/breast-cancer-screening1

Nikkilä, J., & Oulun yliopisto,. (2013). PALB2 and RAP80 genes in hereditary breast cancer predisposition Cancer and Women’s Health Research.

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