Cardiovascular Diseases

Dilated cardiomyopathy is a heart muscle condition that usually begins in the main pumping chamber of the heart. The ventricle expands and dilates, making it unable to pump blood as efficiently as a healthy heart. Both ventricles may be altered significantly (American Heart Association, 2020). Anyone, including newborns and children, may be affected by the illness. In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, the cardiac muscle thickens abnormally. The heart’s swollen muscle can make it more difficult for it to pump blood. Many persons with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy go misdiagnosed because they have few if any, signs and can live regular lives without severe complications. The heart chambers stiffen with time in restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) (Mayo Clinic, 2021). Though the heart is capable of squeezing well, it is unable to relax regularly between beats. This makes it more difficult for the heart to pump blood. The circulatory system becomes clogged with blood.


I would take a thorough medical history, analyze the symptoms, and conduct a physical examination to identify heart failure. I may also look to determine if the patient has heart failure risk factors including high blood pressure, coronary artery disease, or diabetes. Blood tests may be performed to check for evidence of disorders that damage the heart. The state of the heart and lungs can also be seen on X-ray scans. I might also perform an ECG. The electrical signals in the heart are recorded during this short and painless test. It may display the frequency and duration of heartbeats.


Although there are no specific ECG abnormalities associated with DCM, the ECG is frequently abnormal. Over 90% of people with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have abnormal ECGs. Left ventricular hypertrophy, ST-segment changes, T-wave inversion, big Q waves, and the unusual decrease of R waves in the lateral precordial lines seen in patients are the most frequent abnormalities (American Heart Association, 2020). In 99 percent of RCM cases, electrocardiographic recordings are abnormal. ECG findings include biatrial hypertrophy, obliquely raised ST segment, and notched or multiphase late-rising T waves.


The ejection fraction (EF) of the left ventricle (or right ventricle) measures how well it pumps blood with each heartbeat. The quantity of blood pumped out from the left ventricle every time it contracts is usually referred to as EF (Mayo Clinic, 2021). The major pumping chamber of the heart is the left ventricle. An ejection fraction of more than 55 percent is considered typical. This indicates that each pulse pumps out 55 percent of the entire blood in the left ventricle. When the left ventricular muscle does not pump as well as it should, heart failure with low ejection fraction occurs. The EF is less than 40%.


BNP test detects the amounts of a specific protein BNP produced by the cardiovascular system. If someone has heart failure,  BNP concentrations are greater than normal. BNP levels are straightforward and objective indicators of heart health. The typical range covers the following items: Less than 100 pg/mL is considered normal. More than 400 pg/mL is considered high. A doctor’s examination is required for levels between 100 and 400 pg/mL (Stanford Health Care, 2021). These metrics are used to identify heart failure, especially diastolic dysfunction.


American Heart Association. (2020). What Is Cardiomyopathy in Adults?. Retrieved 12 September 2021, from

Mayo Clinic. (2021). Cardiomyopathy – Symptoms and causes. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 12 September 2021, from

Stanford Health Care. (2021). Types. Retrieved 12 September 2021, from

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