Case Study: Tourette’s Disorder

Please follow the same instructions as for Week 3 and produce a brochure, powerpoint, or flyer that is directed to parents and has some appropriate weblinks that are useful. Your products in Week 3 were outstanding! Here are the categories of disorder to choose from: Learning and Motor Disorders pages 1181-1205 (Sadock, Sadock, and Ruiz) Specific Learning Disorder, Reading, Writing, and Mathematics Developmental Coordination Disorder Stereotypic Movement Disorder Tourette’s Disorder Tic Disorders Using evidence-based research, design and develop a Parent Guide for your assigned disorder including: Signs and symptoms Pathophysiology How the disorder is diagnosed Treatment options Provide a minimum of three academic references Case Study: Tourette’s Disorder.

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PARENT GUIDE

Tourette’s Disorder

Tourette’s disorder is a condition that manifests in the nervous system resulting is uncontrollable tics (sudden sounds and movements). This could include repeatedly blurting random words, clearing the throat or blinking.
Approximately 100,000 US residents manifest the condition with greater incidence among males than females.
The symptoms will typically clear with advance in age.
Although the disorder’s cause is unknown, it is postulated that it is linked to abnormality in the basal ganglia of the brain that controls movement of the body Case Study: Tourette’s Disorder.
Signs and Symptoms

The disorder manifests are uncontrollable tics that may or may not be noticeable. The tics can present as motor tics or vocal tics.
Motor tics entail body movement and they include shrugging the shoulders, twitching the mouth, making a face, blinking, and jerking the head or arm.
Vocal tics include swearing, sniffing, shouting, grunting, coughing, clearing the throat, yelping and barking Case Study: Tourette’s Disorder.
Pathophysiology

The precise pathophysiology is undetermined, but it is postulated that it is a disorder of synaptic neurotransmission noted by abnormality of the basal ganglia’s inferior prefrontal cortex and caudate nucleus. There is also a possibility of cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical loops disinhibition.
Neuroimaging on patients show multifocal activation in different brain regions (paralimbic, language and sensorimotor regions) when the tic occurs. The regions include claustrum, insula, superior temporal gyrus, broca area, primary motor cortex, caudate nucleus, putamen, inferior periatal cortex, dorsolateral-rostral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulated cortex, and lateral and medial premotor cortices Case Study: Tourette’s Disorder.
Diagnosis

There is no standard diagnostic test for the disorder although the presence of the tics act as an indication that is confirmed by neuroimaging.
Experiencing tics for more than a year along with multifocal activation in the paralimbic, language and sensorimotor regions of the brain when the tics occur is an indication of the disorder Case Study: Tourette’s Disorder.
Treatment options

There is not cure for the condition since persons with the syndrome will experience symptoms relief with advance in age. Still, treatment will entail either of two approaches.
The first treatment approach is behavioral therapy that include exposure with response prevention (ERP) and habit reversal training (HRT). ERT targets the feelings that trigger the tics. HRT trains the patient to have better control of the tic urges.
The second treatment approach entails taking prescription medication that suppress the tic urges. Medication is only used in more severe cases of the disorder since it is accompanied by undesirable side effects Case Study: Tourette’s Disorder.
Additional Information Sources

https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/289457-overview
https://www.webmd.com/brain/tourettes-syndrome#1
https://www.tourette.org/about-tourette/overview/what-is-tourette/
https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/tourettes-syndrome/
https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0301/p651.html
https://www.uptodate.com/contents/tourette-syndrome Case Study: Tourette’s Disorder

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