Cultural Diversity in Health and Illness

Introduction
Our nation has been a melting pot of cultures since its birth and this multiculturalism is increasing rapidly. This diversity is creating a significant challenge for interactions at all levels of society particularly in healthcare. In order to meet this challenge, advanced practice nurses we must first understand the concept of culture, as well as health and illness.

Culture is defined by Dayer-Berenson, as “the shared values, traditions, norms, customs, arts, history, folklore, and institutions of a group of people who are unified by race, ethnicity, language, nationality, sexual orientation, and/or religion.”(2014). In order to help our patients connect with their healthcare providers it is vital as advanced practice nurses to provide culturally sensitive and competent care. This will help us identifiy healthcare disparities and their impact on current health care in the United States.

Learning objectives for the module:
At the end of this module, the student will be able to:

Define health and illness
Define diversity
Identify ways to provide culturally competent care
Describe the impact of diversity on healthcare disparities
Readings:
Andrews & Boyle, J. , Chapters 2, 3
The Process of Cultural Competence in the Delivery of Healthcare Services by Campinha-Bacote (2002)
http://journals.sagepub.com.ezproxy.wilkes.edu/doi/pdf/10.1177/10459602013003003

Cultural Competence for Healthcare Providers http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dNLtAj0wy6I&feature=related
Websites:
The Model of Cultural Competence through Evolutionary Concept Analysis by Suh (2004). http://journals.sagepub.com.ezproxy.wilkes.edu/doi/pdf/10.1177/1043659603262488
Communication Between Cultures: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AlMf_RGlaQU

Topic 1: Health and Illness
The concepts of health and illness are not easily defined and are difficult to understand. The World Health organization (WHO) defines health as “a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease.” Other definitions include the state of being free from illness or injury, or a general condition of the body or mind in equilibrium. The many definitions of health make it difficult to grasp and understand it’s meaning. The definitions of illness are just as elusive. Is it the absence or opposite of health or is it better defined as a disease or condition? No matter the definition we need to understand that the experience of being ill is also defined by the patient. What health may mean to a 21 year old athlete versus a 60 year old diabetic will vary greatly. Therefore we find individuals defining health and illness according to their own definitions. We also must realize that culture greatly affects one’s definition of health and illness, therefore as advanced practice nurses in order to provide competent care we must understand health and illness from our client’s perspective.

Topic 2: Cultural Diversity
The United States is a multicultural nation made up of cultures from around the world. According to the US Census Bureau, Asian and mixed race people are the two fastest growing populations in the US. Although non-hispanic whiltes remain the largest group of Americans at 198 million, they are the only group with a higher death rate than birth rate. Hispanics follow the non-hispanic whites at 57.5 million and blacks or African Americans at 46.8 million. With the increase in these diverse populations come issues which tremendously effect their health care. Language barriers and low incomes lead to lower access and availability of health care and therefore less favorable outcomes according to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) report (2003). This results in daily challenges for the nurse to identify the diverse needs of the patients and address them in order to provide quality health care. In order to combat these culturally driven healthcare disparities the advanced practice nurse must be prepared to meet the unique healthcare needs for all culturally diverse paients in their care.

Module 3
Discussion Based on the various definitions of health, define health and explain if you agree with one definition more than the other? Why?
Post your initial response by Wednesday at midnight. Respond to one student by Sunday at midnight. Both responses should be a minimum of 150 words, scholarly written, APA formatted, and referenced. A minimum of 2 references are required (other than your text) for both posts. Refer to the Grading Rubric for Online Discussion in the Course Resource section.

Module 3: Discussion

Special Guidance on APA formatting in Discussion Posts
APA formatting is required in discussion posts with the following two exceptions (due to limitations with the text editor in LIVE): double line space and indent 1/2 inch from the left margin. Discussion posts will NOT be evaluated on those two formatting requirements. All other APA formatting guidelines should be followed. For example, in-text citations must be formatted with the appropriate information and in the correct sequence (Author, year), reference list entries must include all appropriate information following guidelines for capitalization, italics, and be in the correct sequence. Refer to the APA Publication Manual 7th ed. for each source type’s specific requirements. Please let your instructor know if you have any questions.

Module 3: Discussion

Must post first.

Subscribe

Based on the various definitions of health, define health and explain if you agree with one definition more than the other? Why?

Post your initial response by Wednesday at midnight. Respond to one student by Sunday at midnight. Both responses should be a minimum of 150 words, scholarly written, APA formatted, and referenced. A minimum of 2 references are required (other than your text) for both posts. Refer to the Grading Rubric for Online Discussion in the Course Resource section.

Feedback

100 / 100

I think most of us agree that although the WHO definition has been widely accepted we define health differently today because we recognize the need for the individual to define what health means to them. As an example, a Diabetic who maintains their BS at 140 or below may identify as being healthy. Good points, thank you.

less

View Graded Rubric
Start a New Thread

Discussion
Filter by:

All Threads

Sort by:

Most Recent Activity Least Recent Activity Newest Thread Oldest Thread Author First Name A-Z Author First Name Z-A Author Last Name A-Z Author Last Name Z-A Subject A-Z Subject Z-A

Module IIISubscribe
Evelyn Anderson posted Sep 17, 2021 8:03 AM
Contains unread posts
Health is a broad term that can have many definitions or viewpoints considering the context of which it is being used. Health can be seen as a physical and mental state of well-being with environmental and sociological elements that can play a role in a persons’ health. Also, consideration must be given for how each person views health and what it means to them. Defining health can have an impact on health care professionals and society in how it is socially developed and impacts policy development and implementation in the health care system (Leonardi, 2018). The definition of health can impact a persons behavior and their ability to make decisions regarding their health (Leonardi, 2018). Some scholars consider questions of health by asking if health is a complete state of well-being? or is health a resilience to disease and injury and recovery from a specific disease? (Oleribe et al. 2018). The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as a complete state of mental, physical and social well-being (Leonardi, 2018). Scholars contend that it is near impossible for any one person to have complete mental, physical and social well-being (Leonardi, 2018). It doesn’t appear that any one definition of health is the complete answer and the determinants of health is all always changing. Health is a complex state of being with many contributing factors. References:Leonardi, F. (2018). The definition of health: Towards new perspectives. International Journal of Health Services, 48 (4), 735-748. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020731418782653 less1 UnreadUnread1 ViewsViews
1
1
1 RepliesReplies
1
View profile card for Jerrica Goins
Last post September 19 at 11:10 PM by Jerrica Goins
Oleribe, O., Ukwedeh, O., Burstow, N., Gomaa, A., Sonderup, M., Cook, N., Waked, I., Spearman, W., & Taylor-Robinson, S. (2018). Health: Redefined. The Pan African Medical Journal, 30, 292-292. https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2018.30.292.15436
Module 3: DiscussionSubscribed
Gisselle Mustiga posted Sep 14, 2021 9:57 PM
Contains unread posts
Health is a notion that individuals create and relate to culture and social norms that should be defined congruently in natural design, objectives, and facts. The world health organization (WHO) proposes health as the absence of disease or illness and complete physical wellness. The concept of health is complex since when health is taken as a subjective aspect, it creates a notion for judgments and social norms that portray health definition. The former (health based on objectivity, subjectivity, and facts) is more realistic since it governs all aspects than the absence of illness or complete physical wellness (Campinha-Bacote, 2019). The latter is that individuals can have medical or lifestyle conditions and still lead healthy lives.From a patient’s perspective, health-related values involve cultural identity, ethnicity, moral and ethical views, individual preferences, and socioeconomic status (Andrew et al., 2020). Health care providers’ and patient’s values are linked through communication. Through communication, the nurses obtain subjective data from the patient, including the past and present state of health and cultural aspects which might interfere with the nurses’ ability to make health care decisions (Suh, 2004). Objective data are also taken to assess the patient’s strength and delve into their lifestyles to identify possible risk factors that make an individual susceptible to illnesses.Andrews, M. M., Boyle, J. S., Collins, J. W. (Eds.). (2020). Transcultural concepts in nursing care (8th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health.Suh, E. E. (2004). The model of cultural competence through an evolutionary concept analysis. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 15(2), 93-102.less1 UnreadUnread0 ViewsViews
0
1
1 RepliesReplies
1
View profile card for Idida Aleman Musial
Last post September 19 at 10:40 PM by Idida Aleman Musial
Campinha-Bacote, J. (2019). Cultural compatibility: A paradigm shift in the cultural competence versus cultural humility debate—Part I. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 24(1).
References
Health professionals understand cultural competence and that individual’s health is not separate from social and environmental contexts. They attend to physical, social, and ecological contexts that affect health and understand the difference between health and health aspects. Andrews et al., 2020 transcultural interprofessional practices (TIP) constitute systematic, patient-centered, and logical scientific ways of availing safe, affordable, evidence-based practices for individuals from different diversities. The critical components of the TIP relate to the individual’s context regarding beliefs, attitudes, and health-related values.
NSG 556: Module 3Subscribe
Jennifer Johnson posted Sep 14, 2021 9:52 PM
Contains unread posts
Early definitions of health, as understood by the biomedical community, focused solely on the normal functioning of the body, and the absence of disease (Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada, 2016). Currently however, a more recent definition of health from the World Health Organization, broadly encompasses an individual or community’s ability to “realize aspirations and satisfy needs, and to change or cope with the environment” (World Health Organization, 1984, p. 4). A flushing out of that definition reveals a strong emphasis on health promotion within it. I agree with and appreciate this aspect of health promotion within the definition because we cannot define health for our patients (McCartney et al., 2019). We can promote health within our patients; we can educate them, provide treatments and offer recommendations, and we can even prescribe medications and testing to collect objective evidence. But we cannot provide health for our patients.
Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada. (2016, August 12). Concepts of Health and Illness: Definitions of Health. AFMC Primer on Population Health: A virtual textbook on Public Health concepts for clinicians. https://phprimer.afmc.ca/en/part-i/chapter-1/ World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe. (‎1984, September 13)‎. Health promotion : a discussion document on the concept and principles : summary report of the Working Group on Concept and Principles of Health Promotion. Copenhagen : WHO Regional Office for Europe. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/107835less2 UnreadUnread3 ViewsViews

3
2
3 RepliesReplies
3
View profile card for Gisselle Mustiga
Last post September 19 at 10:02 PM by Gisselle Mustiga

McCartney, G., Popham, F., McMaster, R., & Cumbers, A. (2019). Defining health and health inequalities. Public Health, 172, 22-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2019.03.023
Resources
What we can offer is an opportunity for our patients to achieve health within their own environment. Our patients’ understanding of health, well-being, illness or disease will vary based on their culture, background and environment (McCartney et al., 2019). The experiences of health between patients can vary as greatly as they differ from each other. For some, living with heart disease and diabetes may be such a challenge that their lives are turned upside down. For others, chronic illness can be easily managed and will not be such a hindrance to their experience of being healthy. Factors such as education, environment, socioeconomic status, cultural background and beliefs, genetic disposition, mental health, and access to care all play a significant and complex role in one’s understanding of health (McCartney et al., 2019). The advanced practice nurse must take these factors into account when assessing a patient’s experience of health.
Module 3 DiscussionSubscribe
Jerrica Goins posted Sep 15, 2021 11:57 PM
Contains unread posts
The World Health Organization started defining health in 1948 as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (McCartney et al., 2019). Today, managing disease, not solely its absence, is a means to a healthy life. Many people have a chronic disease that are managed and are considered to be healthy because they have their disease under control. Modern concepts of health recognize health as more than the absence of disease, implying a maximum capacity of the individual for self-realization and self-fulfillment (Svalastog et al., 2017). The health of individuals is also linked to the environment in which they live and especially to their ability to adapt and integrate into their life context. I believe that this is a more universal definition of health because it uses an approach that can be individualized. Health is a resource to support an individual’s function and provides the means to lead a full life with meaning and purpose. Health is also a positive concept that emphasizes social and personal resources, as well as physical capabilities.References Svalastog, A. L., Donev, D., Jahren Kristoffersen, N., & Gajović, S. (2017). Concepts and definitions of health and health-related values in the knowledge landscapes of the digital society. Croatian Medical Journal, 58(6), 431–435. https://doi.org/10.3325/cmj.2017.58.431less2 UnreadUnread3 ViewsViews
3
2
2 RepliesReplies
2
View profile card for Francesca Provencher
Last post September 19 at 8:09 PM by Francesca Provencher
McCartney, G., Popham, F., McMaster, R., & Cumbers, A. (2019). Defining health and health inequalities. Public Health, 172(172), 22–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2019.03.023
Module 3 Discussion – Jahenein NagelSubscribe
Jahenein Nagel posted Sep 13, 2021 4:24 PM
Contains unread posts
For many years the definition of health has remained unchanged as a narrow concept, encompassing physical wellbeing from a medical context (Oleribe et al., 2018). The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as a “state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (Fallon & Karlawish, 2019, p. 1104). To some, “health is wealth” -given that in the absence of good health, an individual or society cannot attain its full potential (Oleribe et al., 2019).By adopting the social constructionism point of view, one can understand that health is not simply present in nature, waiting to be discovered by scientists, but rather is continuously created by individuals and groups who interact among themselves in different social contexts (Leonardi, 2018, p. 739). This implies that health cannot have a unique definition in isolation; instead, health embodies as many definitions as there are people who use it (Leonardi, 2018, p. 739). When considering the various definitions of health, this is the definition that I agree with. When health is perceived through this perspective, it is a never-ending system of events, within which an observer may select some of these events and construct a theoretical configuration of health, depending on its own theories, knowledge purposes, and operational targets: no one of these can be absolutely better than another, because each definition may only be more or less useful for pursuing specific knowledge and operational targets in the different scopes of application (Leonardi, 2018, p. 739). To sum it up, health is subjective, fluid, and ever changing. In my opinion, health cannot be summed up in one restrictive definition.Fallon, C. K., & Karlawish, J. (2019). Is the WHO definition of health aging well? Frameworks for “health” after three score and ten. American Journal of Public Health, 109(8), 1104-1106. http://dx.doi.org.wilkes.idm.oclc.org/10.2105/AJPH.2019.305177Oleribe, O. O., Ukwedeh, O., Burstow, N. J., Gomaa, A. I., Sonderup, M. W., Cook, N., Waked, I., Spearman, W., & Taylor-Robinson, S. D. (2018, August 24). Health: redefined. NCBI. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6320447/less2 UnreadUnread14 ViewsViews
14
2
2 RepliesReplies
2
View profile card for Emilia Rodriguez
Last post September 18 at 10:43 PM by Emilia Rodriguez
Leonardi, F. (2018). The definition of health: Towards new perspectives. International Journal of Health Services, 48(4), 735-748. https://doi-org.wilkes.idm.oclc.org/10.1177%2F0020731418782653
References
The definition of health has many implications for practice, policy, health services, and health promotion (Leonardi, 2018, 736). Furthermore, the definition affects health professionals, and in turn they strongly affect how health is socially constructed in modern societies (Leonardi, 2018, p. 736). Views of health have a strong impact on people’s health behaviors and this affects their ability to make appropriate health decisions (Leonardi, 2018, p, 736). To put it concisely, the definition of health is of paramount importance in all health fields.
Discussion 3Subscribe
Emilia Rodriguez posted Sep 15, 2021 3:12 PM
Contains unread posts
Definitions of Health According to Farre and Rapley (2017), the medical model definition of health emphasizes the absence of disease. Consequently, health is defined as the presence of normal or high functioning of the body and the absence of infirmity or disease. The medical model emphasizes the integrity of the physiological, anatomical, and psychological integrity of the body. According to Svalastog et al. (2017), the holistic model was championed by World Health Organization in 1947. The holistic model defines health as a state of complete mental, physical and social wellbeing and not just the absence of an illness or infirmity (Svalastog et al., 2017). The holistic model positively promoted the view of health, unlike the medical model. According to Svalastog et al. (2017), the holistic model had been viewed as having unmeasurable aspects and generally considered vague especially with the terms such as wellbeing. However, the holistic model can sum population or individual-based indicators of wellbeing to define health. According to Dalh et al. (2018), the wellness model of health definition was championed by World Health Organization as an imitative of health promotion. The wellness model presents health in a dynamic perspective emphasizing health as a process or a force. The wellness model defines health as the extent to which a group or individual’s ability to satisfy their needs, realize their aspiration and the environmental coping capability; health is a resource for day to day living, as well as social and personal wellbeing. I agree with the wellness model definition of health. The wellness model, unlike the other definitions, views health as a process of living rather than a state of wellbeing. Consequently, the wellness model emphasizes health promotion since the current health status is largely a sum of our past living conditions and lifestyle choices.Dahl, A. J., Peltier, J. W., & Milne, G. R. (2018). Development of a value co‐creation wellness model: The role of physicians and digital information seeking on health behaviors and health outcomes. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 52(3), 562-594. https://doi.org/ 10.1111/joca.12176Svalastog, A. L., Donev, D., Kristoffersen, N. J., & Gajović, S. (2017). Concepts and definitions of health and health-related values in the knowledge landscapes of the digital society. Croatian Medical Journal, 58(6), 431. https://doi.org/10.3325%2Fcmj.2017.58.431less1 UnreadUnread1 ViewsViews
1
1
1 RepliesReplies
1
View profile card for Kadijatu Sesay
Last post September 18 at 6:33 PM by Kadijatu Sesay
Farre, A., & Rapley, T. (2017, December). The new old (and old new) medical model: Four decades navigating the biomedical and psychosocial understandings of health and illness. In Healthcare (Vol. 5, No. 4, p. 88). Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare5040088
References
The Definition I Agree With
The Wellness Model
The Holistic Model
The Medical Model
Francesca Provencher- Module 3Subscribe
Francesca Provencher posted Sep 13, 2021 8:16 PM
Contains unread posts
Throughout the reading its it obvious that there are many different definitions for the word health. One definition stated by the World Health Organization (WHO) states health is a “state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (Leonardi, 2018, p. 735). Another definition of health found in the literature includes, having an absence of diseases or illnesses and defined by physical limitations (Leonardi, 2018). I agree with the WHO definition of health. It is important that we not only look at the physical ailments that an individuals may have but make mental and social ailments equally as important. Leonardi F. (2018). The Definition of Health: Towards New Perspectives. International journal of health services : planning, administration, evaluation, 48(4), 735–748. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020731418782653less1 UnreadUnread1 ViewsViews
1
1
1 RepliesReplies
1
View profile card for Jeffrey Mahoney
Last post September 18 at 11:56 AM by Jeffrey Mahoney
Bradley, K., Goetz, T., & Viswanathan, S. (2018). Toward a Contemporary Definition of Health. Military medicine, 183(suppl_3), 204–207. https://doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usy213
Being a mental health nurse and a future mental health nurse practitioner, I see how important mental health is. There are a variety of mental illnesses that if go untreated can cause physical ailments as well. The literature states, the new definition of health transforms the word from requiring the absence of disease to a state where a person has a full life. Health is not a fixed state of being, but a dynamic quality of living where body, mind, and spirit are utilized to make the most of each day (Bradley et al., 2018). I believe it is important to not only be in a disease free state but to feel that way too and have the capabilities of living a full life.
Module ⅢSubscribe
James Neal posted Sep 15, 2021 2:14 AM
Contains unread posts
There are significant differences in how health is defined in various cultures, and being cognizant of these differences can play a major role in determining how successful we’ll be both in meeting the goals of our patients, as well as their clinical outcomes. These types of examples are numerous. In a similar study, those from Asian cultures were much more dissatisfied with Western medical care they received because they ultimately attributed the cause of their initial illness to more supernatural occurrences (Armstrong & Swartzman, 1999). Even within ostensibly the same culture, there are variations in how individuals view health. As an example, some people view having their terminally ill, elderly relative as anything less than full code status to be an affront, whereas others resent that their relative is in the hospital receiving any treatment at all, believing that being at home and in nature is more healthful than the hospital environment. This should remind us, again, that we must be cautious about generalizing people’s health beliefs with those held by the culture we perceive them to be in. Armstrong, T. L., & Swartzman, L. C. (1999). Asian versus western differences in satisfaction with western medical care: The mediational effects of illness attributions. Psychology & Health, 14(3), 403–416. https://doi.org/10.1080/08870449908407337less1 UnreadUnread3 ViewsViews
3
1
1 RepliesReplies
1
View profile card for Jahenein Nagel
Last post September 18 at 10:39 AM by Jahenein Nagel
Levesque, A., & Li, H. Z. (2014). The relationship between culture, health conceptions, and health practices. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 45(4), 628–645. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022113519855
References
As a simple example of this principle, a study in health perception differences in Canada between those with French, English, or First Nation backgrounds found notable differences in how each group viewed health. While those from a European background were more similar, First Nation individuals were more likely to view health as extending beyond the scope of the individual and into the broader family and community (Levesque & Li, 2014). Perhaps without coincidence, First Nation individuals weighted traditional cultural remedies much more highly than other groups in the study (Levesque & Li, 2014). Notably, they did not consider an absence of pain in their definition of health, whereas most other cultures do (Levesque & Li, 2014).
Week 3 LauraSubscribe
Laura Riccardi posted Sep 13, 2021 6:44 PM
Contains unread posts
The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as a complete state of physical, mental, and social well-being (Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization, 1948). A contemporary definition of health could reach beyond this paradigm to recognize that we are all, to some extent, less than perfect, that we each have aspects that need care, and that we all are in some way infirm or even “diseased” (Bradley et al., 2018). This modern definition is focussing not on disease but on a feeling of fullness in your life. I have to agree with the contemporary definition as if you don’t have complete well-being and fullness, a person may have an incomplete, lacking mental state. This could alternatively affect your health in the basic terms as mentioned by the WHO. Social support and interaction is an important part of feeling complete. As evidenced with the COVID pandemic, isolation led people to feel scared, nervous, and unsure regarding their future. This affected all cultures all over the world. One study found that the country of Scotland was locked down for 66 days and people were only allowed to leave to go to work (Ingram et al., 2021). The people in Scotland who lacked interpersonal contact led to cognitive decline and higher levels of negative moods(Ingram et al., 2021). Bradley, K. L., Goetz, T., & Viswanathan, S. (2018). Toward a contemporary definition of health. Military Medicine, 183(suppl_3), 204–207. https://doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usy213Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization. (1948, April 7). WHO. Retrieved September 10, 2021, from http://www.who.int/about/definition/en/print.htmlless1 UnreadUnread1 ViewsViews
1
1
1 RepliesReplies
1
View profile card for Frances Hall
Last post September 17 at 11:25 AM by Frances Hall
Ingram, J., Hand, C. J., & Maciejewski, G. (2021). Social isolation during covid ‐19 lockdown impairs cognitive function. Applied Cognitive Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.3821
References
Romig- Module 3Subscribe
Krista Romig posted Sep 13, 2021 5:19 PM
Contains unread posts
There are many different definitions for the term health and patients’ may have different understanding and priorities when it comes to their health. It is important to reflect on what our personal definition of health is and to assess the patients’ goals for their health. According to the World Health Organization health is “a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease” (World Health Organization, n.d.). However, according to Merriam-Webster (n.d.), health is “the condition of being well or free from disease”.ReferencesWorld Health Organization. (n.d.). Constitution of the World Health Organization. World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/about/governance/constitutionless1 UnreadUnread1 ViewsViews
1
1
1 RepliesReplies
1
View profile card for Jennifer Johnson
Last post September 16 at 7:40 PM by Jennifer Johnson
Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Health. Merriam-Webster. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/health
I agree with the World Health Organization’s definition of health. I believe that health is based on more than just the absence of sickness. As a psychiatric nurse, I see many patients who are technically “healthy” and are not doing well. I believe in holistic care for patients and agree that they need to be well mentally and socially as well as physically.
Module 3Subscribe
Emily Meeks posted Sep 14, 2021 4:47 PM
Contains unread posts
After reading a number of definitions for the term health, it is in my opinion that the definition presented by the World Health Organization is no longer applicable today, given the prevalence of chronic illnesses and disabilities. We have learned from this weeks’ reading that the experience of being ill is determined by the patient. Health, to one individual, may not mean the same thing to another. Health is multidimensional, involving one’s physical, mental, and social sense of well-being, their ability to adapt and find balance. Definitions provided by Sartorius (2006), Huber et al. (2016), and Krahn et al. (2021) each incorporate these aspects.ReferencesKnottnerus, J. A. (2016). Towards a ‘patient-centered’ operationalization of the new dynamic concept of health: a mixed methods study. BMJ Open, 6(1).Krahn, G., Robinson, A., Murray, A., & Havercamp, S. (2021). It’s time to reconsider how weSartorius, N. (2006). The meaning of health and its promotion. Croatian Medical Journal,World Health Organization. (2006). Constitution.less2 UnreadUnread6 ViewsViews
6
2
2 RepliesReplies
2
View profile card for James Neal
Last post September 16 at 4:44 PM by James Neal
https://www.who.int/governance/eb/who_constitution_en.pdf
47(4): 662-664. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2080455/
define health: perspective from disability and chronic conditions. Disability and Health Journal, 14(4). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dhjo.2021.101129
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010091
Huber, M., van Vliet, M., Giezenberg, M., Winkens, B., Heerkens, Y., Dagnelie, P.C., &
Personally, I am more inclined to agree with Huber et al. (2016), as they go on to explain the new concept of health as an individual’s strength and self-management, rather than weakness. Describing that health is a dynamic state, with emphasis on a person being more than their illness and continue to have potential to be healthy (Huber et al., 2016). Reinforced by Krahn et al., health can occur even in the presence of limitations or disorders (2021). For example, a person with a mental health illness or controlled diabetes, living qualities lives, can still be considered healthy. Health is no longer “merely the absence of disease” (WHO, 2006, p. 1).
Module 3 DiscussionSubscribe
Donna Wrobel posted Sep 14, 2021 5:32 PM
Contains unread posts
The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as “physical, mental and social well-being, not just the absence of disease” and a fundamental right of all human beings regardless of race, religion, political belief, economic or social status (Constitution, 2021). The Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) defines health similarly but narrows the definition to the absence of morbidity or mortality (Health Related Quality of Life, 2018). Finally, the Health Resources & Services Administration (HRSA) describes health status as the overall rate of disease incidence and prevalence and the morbidity, mortality or survival rates in a population (Glossary, 2020).In my opinion, health is more than just the absence of disease or disability but the level of well-being that allows the patient to meet or exceed their physical and mental abilities and goals. Because mental and physical health are related and can affect each other in both positive and negative ways, the definition of health must account for both. The concept of health has evolved from as far back as the ancient Greeks as a balance between the person and their environment to today where it is believed to be the capacity of the individual for realizing and fulfilling their own potential to function in their environment (Svalastog et al., 2017). Health is a dynamic concept that changes over a person’s life and can be influenced by their own perception of their capacity as well as their practices and behaviors which affect these physical and mental abilities. Constitution. (2021). World health organization. https://www.who.int/about/governance/constitutionGlossary. (2020, December). Health resources & services administration (HRSA). Retrieved September 11, 2021, from https://bhw.hrsa.gov/glossaryLeininger, M. (1999). What is transcultural nursing and culturally competent care? Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 10(1), 9. less1 UnreadUnread2 ViewsViews
2
1
1 RepliesReplies
1
View profile card for Krista Romig
Last post September 16 at 12:53 AM by Krista Romig
Svalastog, A., Donev, D., Jahren Kristoffersen, N., & Gajović, S. (2017). Concepts and definitions of health and health-related values in the knowledge landscapes of the digital society. Croatian Medical Journal, 58(6), 431–435. https://doi.org/10.3325/cmj.2017.58.431
Health related quality of life. (2018, October 31). Centers for disease control & prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/hrqol/wellbeing.htm
Evans, M. K. (2020). Health equity — are we finally on the edge of a new frontier? New England Journal of Medicine, 383(11), 997–999. https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmp2005944
References
Each of these organizations defines the concept of health a bit differently although they all describe it as the absence of disease. The definition of the World Health Organization, which includes the aspects of mental and social well-being comes closest to the definition of health that is taught in most nursing programs. Nursing is holistic in practice which focuses on the whole person, including their physical, mental and social health in order to assist the patient to maintain or regain their well-being (Leininger, 1999). As we learned in the previous module, the deaf community does not focus on their hearing deficit as a disability. If health was defined solely by the presence of disability or the absence of morbidity or mortality, then all deaf individuals would be deemed unhealthy, which is not the case.
Module 3: DiscussionSubscribe
Idida Aleman Musial posted Sep 15, 2021 11:39 PM
Contains unread posts
Culture plays an important role in health and illness. I agree with the World Health Organization’s definition of health because it portrays the individual as a whole. Research defines health as “wellbeing” of the individual, mentally and physically (Barkham, et al. 2019). When health is disrupted, the equilibrium is affected. Individuals from different cultures have express pain, discomfort, or illness in general in a variety of ways. Age is another possible barrier when providing care. For example, the way that teenagers describe their symptoms can be challenging, however we should still treat them as individuals (Joseph & Fleary, 2021). Healthcare professionals have a big responsibility when providing care to a diverse public. Health disparities exists because of the lack of cultural sensitivity to individuals that are different from us. Researchers found health disparities with “Asian and Native American racial groups had stronger effects from racial discrimination than did blacks” (Carter, et al. 2019). There are many areas that require improvement when it comes to addressing health. For instance, when providing care to an obese individual, we have to be aware of our bias and judgment (Bąk-Sosnowska, et al. 2017;2016). We can make a difference in the way that healthcare is delivered by providing unbiased and free of judgment care. Reference: less0 UnreadUnread
0 ViewsViews
0
0
0 RepliesReplies
0
Carter, R. T., Johnson, V. E., Kirkinis, K., Roberson, K., Muchow, C., & Galgay, C. (2019). A meta-analytic review of racial discrimination: Relationships to health and culture. Race and Social Problems, 11(1), 15-32. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12552-018-9256-y
Bąk-Sosnowska, M., & Skrzypulec-Plinta, V. (2017;2016;). Health behaviors, health definitions, sense of coherence, and general practitioners’ attitudes towards obesity and diagnosing obesity in patients. Archives of Medical Science, 13(2), 433-440. https://doi.org/10.5114/aoms.2016.58145
Barkham, M., Broglia, E., Dufour, G., Fudge, M., Knowles, L., Percy, A., Turner, A., Williams, C., & the SCORE Consortium. (2019). Towards an evidence‐base for student wellbeing and mental health: Definitions, developmental transitions and data sets. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 19(4), 351-357. https://doi.org/10.1002/capr.12227
Kadijatu SesaySubscribe
Kadijatu Sesay posted Sep 15, 2021 10:14 PM
Contains unread posts
Health can be defined in many ways. To some, health can be defined as eating well, exercising, and sleeping well. Others can define health as not being in the hospital or having chronic illnesses. The World Health Organization defines health as “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.”Pasanen et al., (2021) also define health and well-being as the quality of life. The importance of well mental health and social well-being play a large role in impacting one’s perception of health. In my opinion, health is a combination of both definitions that I discussed. Health is a combination of well physical and mental health along with managing modifiable risk factors for poor health. Environmental factors also play a large role in shaping our health. Health is finding a state of well-being that includes taking care of oneself, maintaining optimal mental health, and controlling environmental risk factors. In patients with chronic medical conditions, health also means managing symptoms and maintaining an active physical lifestyle. Rojas-Rueda, D., Morales-Zamora, E., Alsufyani, W.A., Herbst, C.H., Albalwi, S.M., Alsukait, R. & Alomran, M. (2021, January). Environmental risk factors and health: An umbrella review of meta-analysis. International Journal of Environmental Resources and Public Health, 18(2). DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18020704World Health Organization. 2021. The constitution of the world health organization. https://www.who.int/about/governance/constitutionless0 UnreadUnread
0 ViewsViews
0
0
0 RepliesReplies
0
Pasanen, T.P., Tamminen, N., Martelin, T., Mankinen, K. & Solin, P. (2021, July). Profiles of subjective health among people living alone: A latent class analysis. BMC Public Health, 20(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-11396-2
References:
Rojas-Rueda et al., (2021) state that health is shaped by environmental, psychosocial, and physical surroundings as well as genetic predispositions. Rojas-Rueda et al., (2021) also report that chronic disease burdens are impacted by our environmental influences.
Module 3Subscribe
Karimah Moss posted Sep 13, 2021 12:01 PM
Contains unread posts
Module 3Others define health as the individual’s ability to function and participate. Health is exclusively based on the ability or inability to participate and function in society. This places emphasis only on physical health and other aspects such as pain or mental health are only important when they impact the ability to participate (McCartney et al., 2019).ReferencesMcCartney, G., Popham, F., McMaster, R., & Cumbers, A. (2019). Defining health and health inequalities. Public Health, 172, 22–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2019.03.023 less1 UnreadUnread2 ViewsViews
2
1
1 RepliesReplies
1
View profile card for Donna Wrobel
Last post September 15 at 12:31 PM by Donna Wrobel
Krahn, G. L., Robinson, A., Murray, A. J., Havercamp, S. M., & The Nisonger RRTC on Health and Function. (2021). It’s time to reconsider how we define health: Perspective from disability and chronic condition. Disability and Health Journal, 14(4), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dhjo.2021.101129
An additional interpretation is that “health is the dynamic balance of physical, mental, social, and existential well-being in adapting to conditions of life and the environment. This definition incorporates environmental factors and recognizes health as fluid across the life span, with adaptation to life circumstance at its core” (Krahn et al., 2021, p. 4). Existential well-being refers to how the individual perceives their well-being in terms of spiritual integrity, satisfaction in life, comfort with death and illness, and purpose of life. With existential well-being, one has the freedom to live a life that is compatible with their values and religious practices without feeling discriminated against (Krahn et al., 2021). This is the definition I most agree with because it addresses essential areas of health that the other two definitions I discussed do not. It looks at all components of one’s life that can have an impact on overall well-being. When discussing health, it is important to view the individual as a whole, rather than seeing only one part of the person. I also love how this definition includes those with disabilities. It separates physical functional abilities from health and states that good health can occur even when limitations are present with a disability (Krahn et al., 2021).
This week, I will be discussing the term health and its varying definitions. One definition of health is that it is as an ideal outcome. This interpretation places the individual into two distinct categories, healthy or unhealthy. According to this definition, healthy and unhealthy are determined by whether or not the person has achieved an overall state of well-being. However, this explanation of health does not take into account that people with certain medical conditions or disabilities, and the aging population may view themselves as being healthy (McCartney et al., 2019).
Module 3Subscribe
Frances Hall posted Sep 15, 2021 12:32 AM
Contains unread posts
The modern understanding of health became official when the World Health Organization (WHO), at the time of its establishment in 1948, included the definition of health in its Constitution. This generally accepted definition states that “health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”(Svalastog et al., 2017). Health is an amorphous word that lacks a single definition. To some, “health is wealth”, given that in the absence of good health, an individual or society cannot attain its full potential(Oleribe et al., 2018). We all understand that without health, we are not living a rewarding and full life. Health is viewed a resource and a total, personal, situation-specific phenomenon. Absence of disease is not enough, the life situation as a whole must be taken into consideration (Svalastog et al., 2017). Now that is a definition I like, health is the total of all the aspects that make up our lives. Starting with the health of our family and welfare physically and mentally. To be able to live according to one personal values is also an important issue. Everyone will have a different perception of health as it is a personal thing and as providers of healthcare we need to make sure our care plans are individualized for meet their needs. Oleribe, O., Ukwedeh, O., Burstow, N., Gomaa, A., Sonderup, M., Cook, N., Waked, I., Spearman, W., & Taylor-Robinson, S. (2018). Health: Redefined. Pan African Medical Journal, 30. https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2018.30.292.15436less0 UnreadUnread
0 ViewsViews
0
0
0 RepliesReplies
0
Svalastog, A., Donev, D., Jahren Kristoffersen, N., & Gajović, S. (2017). Concepts and definitions of health and health-related values in the knowledge landscapes of the digital society. Croatian Medical Journal, 58(6), 431–435. https://doi.org/10.3325/cmj.2017.58.431
References
Discussion 3Subscribe
Julie Robichaud posted Sep 13, 2021 10:04 AM
Contains unread posts
Health means something different to each individual and culture. In 1948, Mahalama Gandhi came up with the idea that health was more important than wealth, and that society could not prosper if its people were not healthy (Oleribe et al., 2018). Health has multiple dimensions that include situational, professional, societal, and cultural definitions (Oleribe et al., 2018). Unfortunately we presently live in an unhealthy society with terrorism, murder, and other social vices that make the world unhealthy (Oleribe et al., 2018). This suggests that health should not just refer to oneself, but also to society which could result in an enhanced community that is safe, fulfilling, and happy. A redefined health according to Oleribe et al (2018), is “a satisfactory and acceptable state of physical (biological), mental (intellectual), emotional (psychological), economic (financial), and social (societal) wellbeing.”McCartney, G., Popham, F., McMaster, R. & Cumbers, A (2019). Defining health and health inequalities. ScienceDirect, 172, pp. 22-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2019.03.023 less1 UnreadUnread4 ViewsViews
4
1
1 RepliesReplies
1
View profile card for Karimah Moss
Last post September 14 at 3:15 PM by Karimah Moss
Oleribe, O.O., Ukwedeh, O., Burstow, H.J., Gomaa, A.I., Sonderup, M.W., Cook, N., Waked, I., Spearman, W. & Taylor-Robinson, S.D. (2018). The Pan African Medical Journal, 30. https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2018.30.292.15436
I disagree with the WHO definition of health because there is no such thing as a “complete” physical, mental, and social well-being. This describes an absolute and impossible state to fulfill. I have always looked at things holistically, because looking at the “whole” picture is necessary, practical, and achieves a better outcome. I would define health as it pertains to myself, society, and I would include my family. I would include my family because they are as important to me as my health and well-being. The definition I relate to the most is one defined by J.M. Last, which defines health as a structural, functional, and emotional state compatible with effective life as an individual and member of society (McCartney et al., 2019).
Module 3 DP-H. StetsonSubscribe
Heather Stetson posted Sep 13, 2021 6:14 PM
Contains unread posts
Health can be defined differently depending on various factors such as an individual’s cultural background, socioeconomic status, and/or age. The commonly accepted definition of health was adopted in 1948 by the World Health Organization (n.d.) as “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (para. 1). The creation of this definition was important during this time because it catalyzed the creation of national healthcare systems (Leonardi, 2018). However, in today’s medically complex world the WHO’s definition of health is viewed by some as outdated and unachievable for most people. less0 UnreadUnread
0 ViewsViews
0
0
0 RepliesReplies
0
World Health Organization [WHO]. (n.d.). Constitution. Retrieved September 11, 2021, from https://www.who.int/about/governance/constitution
Leonardi, F. (2018). The definition of health: Towards new perspectives. International Journal of Health Services, 48(4), 735-748. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020731418782653
Card, A. J. (2017). Moving beyond the WHO definition of health: A new perspective for an aging world and the emerging era of value‐based care. World Medical and Health Policy, 9(1), 127-137. https://doi.org/10.1002/wmh3.221
This definition of health offered by Card (2017) aligns with the philosophy of treating patients from a holistic perspective. It considers that health does not occur on a continuum. It is more inclusive of socio-cultural considerations and does not indicate that for a person to be healthy they must have a complete absence of disease.
The experience of physical and psychological well-being. Good health and poor health do not occur as a dichotomy, but as a continuum. The absence of disease or disability is neither sufficient nor necessary to produce a state of good health. (p. 131)
According to Leonardi (2018), due to the advancements in modern medicine, people are living longer lives with more chronic illnesses. Additionally, most people do not experience a “complete” state of physical, mental, and social well-being on an absolute continuum. The WHO’s definition does not have a holistic approach for what health means for an individual. As a healthcare provider, I feel health should be viewed as a holistic endeavor. An alternate definition of health proposed by Card (2017) states health is:
Jeff Mahoney
Subscribe
Jeffrey Mahoney posted Sep 13, 2021 12:27 PM
VanderWeele et al. (2019) proffer that the term health has evolved into two concepts – referring narrowly to the wholeness of the body (absence of disease) and broadly to wholeness of the complete person (a state in which all aspects of the person are good). The scholars support their definition by citing the etymology of the term health from Old English hælþ or “wholeness” (VanderWeele et al., 2019).I also recognize that definition of health can be difficult to define in patients who suffer from chronic disease. In this case, I believe that Margaret Newman’s theory of health as expanding consciousness is useful. Newman posits that if a patient with chronic illness recognizes how their patterns have led to disease, then the awareness of the pattern itself can be seen as health (Younas & Parveen, 2017).ReferencesYounas, A., & Parveen, S. (2017). Finding patterns of meaning: Margaret Newman’s theory of health as expanding consciousness. Creative Nursing, 23(4), 207-214. https://doi.org/10.1891/1078-4535.23.4.207
VanderWeele, T. J., McNeely, E., & Koh, H. K. (2019). Flourishing as a definition of health—Reply. JAMA : The Journal of the American Medical Association, 322(10), 981-982. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.10355
They contend that clinicians at the very least should be concerned with the narrow definition – and they worry that a broader view could lead to clinician burn-out (VanderWeele et al., 2019). However, the scholars suggest that clinicians who are in certain specialties (eg, nursing, psychiatry, or family medicine) may benefit from adopting the broader view (VanderWeele et al., 2019). As I understand that health is shaped by cultural values and defined differently by the individual, I resonated most with their final notion. Patient-centered care produces cultural competent care when the clinician respects the core themes that patient values within their daily lives (VanderWeele et al., 2019).

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our Guarantees

Money-back Guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism Guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision Policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy Policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation Guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more
error: