Analyze diagnostic criteria for sleep/wake disorders
Analyze evidence-based psychotherapy and psychopharmacologic treatment for sleep/wake disorders Diagnostic Criteria for Insomnia Sample
Analyze criteria for referring clients to primary care physicians for treatment of sleep/wake disorders
Compare differential diagnostic features of sleep/wake disorders
Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking Submit!
To prepare for this Discussion:
By Day 5 of Week 9, your Instructor will have assigned you a sleep/wake disorder, which will be the focus of your original post for this Discussion.
Review the Learning Resources.
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By Day 3
Explain the diagnostic criteria for your assigned sleep/wake disorder.
Explain the evidenced-based psychotherapy and psychopharmacologic treatment for your assigned sleep/wake disorder.
Describe at what point you would refer the client to their primary care physician for an additional referral to a neurologist, pulmonologist, or physician specializing in sleep disorders and explain why. Diagnostic Criteria for Insomnia Sample
Support your rationale with references to the Learning Resources or other academic resource.
DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for insomnia includes the dissatisfaction with the quality or quantity of sleep characterized by symptoms such as: difficulties in sleep initiation, difficulty in maintaining sleep due to regular awakenings or difficulty going back to sleep after awakenings; as well as waking up early-morning and being unable to go back to sleep (Ellis et al, 2015). In addition, insomnia should cause clinically considerable distress during daytime functioning. Finally, insomnia should occur for a minimum of three nights weekly and should persist for a minimum of three months, in spite of an individual having ample opportunity for sleep (Asnis et al, 2016).
Psychotherapy and Psychopharmacologic Treatment for Insomnia
Benzodiazepines: Benzodiazepines such as quazepam, temazepam and estazolam are approved by FDA for treating and managing insomnia. This medication decrease latency to sleep inception and awakenings by lengthening the duration of sleep through their sedative, anxiolytic, and anticonvulsant attributes (Asnis et al, 2016).
Zopiclone: This medication is effective for decreasing sleep latency and night awakenings, as well as lengthening the sleep duration. Evidence shows that there are minimal side effects associated with Zopiclone. The recommended dose is 3.75–7.5 mg per day (Ellis et al, 2015). Diagnostic Criteria for Insomnia Sample
Zaleplon: The medication demonstrates hypnotic effects through its myorelaxant and anxiolytic characteristic. Zaleplon has been shown to be effective in decreasing period to sleep onset. The recommended dose is 5-10 mg daily (Asnis et al, 2016).
Sleep hygiene education: This psychotherapy targets health practices that could be unfavorable to sleep such as substance use, physical activities, and diet, as well as environmental factors such as mattress, light and noise. In this case, the patient is educated on appropriate measures and the significance of engaging in sleep hygiene practices to encourage better health practices (Asnis et al, 2016).
Stimulus control therapy: The patient is trained on how to re-associate the bed and bedroom with fast sleep inception by limiting activities that are not compatible with sleep. Stimulus control also involves following instructions that recommend going to bed only when sleepy and not using the bedroom for other activities such as watching television (Kay-Stacey, 2016). Other guidelines in stimulus control therapy include maintaining regular sleep pattern and avoiding sleeping during the day. Studies show that stimulus control therapy is effective in managing insomnia among the elderly (Ellis et al, 2015).
Cognitive therapy: This intervention aims at altering defective beliefs and attitudes towards sleep. Cognitive therapy aims at eliminating the vicious cycle of insomnia and the associated emotional and cognition distresses. For instance, the therapy targets impractical sleep projections such as (one should sleep more than 8 hours per night), as well as misconstructions regarding causes of insomnia (Ellis et al, 2015). Diagnostic Criteria for Insomnia Sample
Referral of the Client to the Primary Care Physician
If the insomnia lasts for a period of one month after commencement of treatment, the client should be referred to the primary care physician. This is because chronic insomnia elevates the risk of the client developing psychological disorders like depression and substance dependency. In addition, insomnia is associated with high risk of hypertension. Moreover, chronic insomnia may be suggestive that the sleep problem is as a result of another health condition such as depression, heartburn, substance abuse, pain, etc (Asnis et al, 2016).
Asnis G, Thomas M & Henderson M. (2016). Pharmacotherapy Treatment Options for Insomnia: A Primer for Clinicians. Int J Mol Sci. 17(1): 50.
Ellis J, Cushing T & Germain A. (2015). Treating Acute Insomnia: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a “Single-Shot” of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia. Sleep. 38(6): 971–978.
Kay-Stacey M. (2016). Advances in the management of chronic insomnia
BMJ. 1(354).doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i2123 .
Diagnostic Criteria for Insomnia Sample
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