Germany Population and Economic Performance

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Students are now allowed to submit one Turnitin Check per assignment, which will close 24 hours before the assignment deadline. This allows students to generate an originality report and use this to improve their referencing and citation skills. Turnitin Check is NOT the final submission – students still need to submit their work to the Assignment Link, otherwise it will be marked as Not Submitted.

Students should note that the time of submission is taken from once the document has been successfully uploaded and confirmed – this may take more than five minutes during busy periods. Late penalties will be applied to any work submitted from 12.01pm on 15-5-20 onwards. Details of how to calculate a late penalty can be found in the PG Handbook. It is the student’s responsibility to ensure that the document/file has uploaded successfully Germany Population and Economic Performance .

When submitting students must:

  1. Include a completed cover sheet (available from MOLE)
  2. Use ‘Student Number, MGT670-1’ (e.g. 150011001 MGT670-1) as the document’s file name and also as the Assignment Title in Turnitin.

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Students will be penalised by 5 marks if they do not comply with this. This penalty will be applied when the work is marked.

Contribution to Final Mark for Module: 100%
Maximum Word Length: 1,500 words (but now includes an additional section)
The word count is for the main body of the text and ignores the reference list and appendices. If you exceed the word length you will be penalised. For details see the Management School Handbooks. Please note that SUMS does not have a word count tolerance – it is a stated maximum. The word count penalty will be applied when the work is marked.

Requirements: Consultancy Report
The assignment should be presented in the form of a consultancy report, and should include reference to relevant theoretical frameworks and empirical data. The report should show evidence of carefully developed arguments, and follow academic conventions including proper use of the Harvard System for referencing, and avoiding plagiarism.

Consultancy brief

Packages-for-Puppies is a manufacturing firm that specialises in making wooden toys that can be used to help to train puppies, and is located in the South of the UK. Currently, the head office employs 150 people (including marketing, HR, operations management and financial specialists). It also has two manufacturing plants located in the North of England and one in Norway, each of which employs around 50 people. Each plant specialises in the manufacture of different types of toy, but uses wood as the main material.

The company has recently decided to extend its operations to another country, in order to tap into local markets and utilise local labour. In order to evaluate its options, different departments at head office are responsible for producing feasibility reports of the various aspects that need to be considered in taking forward this ambitious plan. The HR Office has been charged with producing a brief report that outlines the key opportunities and challenges involved in locating operations in another country, from an employment perspective. They have already determined the key areas that they wish the report to cover, and although these may not seem to be comprehensive, they address previously identified gaps in knowledge. They have contracted this work out to you.

In order for the report to be focused, the wordcount should be 1,500 words (excluding references and appendices). The following subheadings should be used for the individual sections, but the word counts for each section should be used only as a guideline.

● Executive Summary (around 250 words, and briefly summarising the key findings of each section of the report)

● Introduction (around 250 words, briefly covering relevant country facts not covered elsewhere in the report and justifying what will be covered in the rest of the report)

● Political parties (around 100 words)

● Levels of poverty and inequality (around 100 words)

● Employment legislation and government policy relating to discrimination in the workplace (around 150 words)

● Trade union membership levels (around 150 words)

● Conclusion (including cost benefit analysis of locating a subsidiary in this location, from an employment perspective) (around 200 words)

● Long term considerations: a short reflection on a) the possible impact of globalisation (e.g. coronavirus), b) the influence of supranational regulation (e.g. EU or ILO) and c) the employment challenges of locating a subsidiary of the company in a developing country in the future (around 300 words for the whole of this short reflection).

[The wordcounts have been amended a little. The Executive summary remains the same. The Introduction has 50 more words as you might now need to include mention of the new section. The sections on political parties and poverty have each been cut by 50 words, and the sections on employment legislation and trade unions have each been cut by 100 words. This then leaves 300 words for the additional section. But remember, that these wordcounts are a guideline only]

Students will be assigned to a country Germany Population and Economic Performance. Countries for 2020 will consist of: Australia, Germany, Netherlands and Sweden

It is acknowledged that it may be easier to obtain information for some of these countries than for others, and this will be taken into account in the marking.

Presentation of the report

Font size 12 should be used, with double spacing and suitable margins. Students may include maps, graphs, tables, or diagrams, but these should be discussed within the report. Colour may be used, but black and white is completely acceptable.

Sources

In the first instance, please see the sources listed in the module handbook. To access relevant information on legislation and statistics you may wish to use online sources such as the World Bank, IMF, OECD, CIA World Factbook or ILO. Relevant sources will include empirical evidence, legislation, and relevant data sources (such as those outlined within the module guide). The conclusion and cost benefit analysis should draw together the key findings of the report and provide recommendations for the company to follow.

This assignment does not require primary research, which is research collecting data from first-hand sources, using methods such as interviews or questionnaires. Research involving human participants or personal data requires research ethics approval.

Better answers will show evidence of the students carefully weighing up the evidence for and against the company investing in the country concerned in relation to each of the areas required, within each section. Where evidence is not available they will have explained the sources that have been consulted, and formulate and justify assumptions based on the evidence that is available.

Assessment criteria Hard Fail
(0-39)

Soft Fail
(40-49)

Pass
(50-59)

Merit
(60-69)

Distinction
(70-79)

Distinction
(80+)

Criteria 1 Coverage of each of the constituent parts (aspects) outlined within the coursework specification Does not cover each of the aspects required. Covers most or all of the aspects, but is very weak in some areas. Covers all of the relevant aspects, but some are only covered in general terms, and do not show careful reflection on the company’s needs Covers all of the relevant aspects. Relates these specifically to the company’s needs. Covers all of the relevant aspects. Relates these specifically to the company’s needs. Shows careful balance between the aspects covered. Draws careful linkages between the aspects covered, showing how these lead to the recommendations. Fully comprehensive coverage of each of the aspects with insightful analysis of how they relate to the company.
Criteria 2 Reference to relevant empirical evidence, legislation and statistics Lacks sufficient empirical evidence- or data from reputable sources Includes reference to some relevant evidence but does not go far in covering aspects required. Refers to some relevant evidence from credible sources and critically evaluates evidence. Draws on relevant evidence. Critically evaluates the strength of the evidence presented. Relates evidence to the company’s needs. Draws on relevant evidence. Critically evaluates the strength of the evidence presented. Relates evidence to the company’s needs. Demonstrates detailed searches of evidence, with wide scope yet appropriate sources. Outstanding and in-depth consideration of each aspect, with skilful interpretation and use of an extensive yet carefully selected range of empirical evidence
Criteria 3 Reference to relevant theoretical frameworks Lacks sufficient reference to theory or relevant concepts Refers briefly to relevant concepts but not to theory and does not carefully relate these concepts to the aspects covered Refers briefly to theory or relevant concepts and broadly shows how they are relevant to the aspect covered. Briefly explains relevant theory and shows carefully how it is relevant to the aspect covered. Explains and critically evaluates relevant theory, relating it to each of the aspects covered Demonstration of outstanding ability to show how theory is used to interpret key areas.
Criteria 4 The conclusion and cost benefit analysis should draw together the key findings of the report and provide recommendations for the company to follow Brief conclusions that do not clearly cover the aspects within the report. Lack of clear recommendations. Brief conclusions and/ or recommendations that do not go far in drawing on the key findings of the report. Attempts are made to formulate conclusions based on the evidence provided and reflect on potential costs and benefits. Formulates conclusions that clearly draw on each of the key findings and reflects on appropriate costs and benefits. Provides brief recommendations. Formulates conclusions that clearly draw on each of the key findings and reflects on appropriate costs and benefits. Careful linkage of recommendations to conclusions, with some reflection on short term and long term options. Critical and imaginative thinking, and full and comprehensive examination of management implications, taking into account the costs and benefits of potential strategies.
Criteria 5 Presentation Unclear written English and grammatical errors. English is understandable, but some aspects could be explained more clearly.

English is clearly written. Sections are clearly presented. English is clearly written. Sections are clearly presented. Use of English reveals careful synthesis of findings. Uses relevant figures and tables. English is clearly written. Sections are clearly presented. Use of English reveals careful synthesis of findings. Uses relevant figures and tables.
Uses persuasive but academic language to convince the reader of the weight of evidence for and against each of aspects, and of the value of the recommendations presented.

Superb skills in communicating knowledge and understanding and in the presentation of complex ideas with well developed figures and tables that help to justify arguments presented.
Criteria 6 Referencing Inadequate reference to sources. The referencing is quite carefully carried out but not consistently. Referencing is quite carefully carried out, but there are a small number of minor mistakes. Referencing is carefully carried out.

Referencing is very carefully carried out.

Excellent use of the Harvard referencing system and an outstanding level of competence
Referencing: you must reference your work correctly using the Harvard method. Failure to do so will result in the deduction of marks and possible proceedings under the University’s Regulations as to the Use of Unfair Means
Independence of working:
You are reminded of the University’s Regulations on the Use of Unfair Means and academic integrity which are outlined in the School’s Handbooks. If there is a suspicion that your work is not your own and that you have used unfair means or there is suspicion of a breach of academic integrity in writing this assessment then you may be referred to our unfair means officers to consider your work. Therefore, you are advised to ensure that you undertake the relevant guidance on the module site or programme level sites that you have access to Germany Population and Economic Performance. If you cannot access these, please contact the Student Experience Office.

Other Submission Details: Reports can use colour or simply black ink. Use 12pt font Times Roman or equivalent and 2 spaces between lines.
Executive Summary

Packages-for-Puppies, a UK manufacturer of wooden toys for training dogs, aims to venture in a foreign market in Europe. Germany is one of the targeted options. In this regard, this report contains an analysis of various factors that influence the suitability of Germany as a target market. In the introduction section, the report provides information about the country’s population and economic performance. Second, the report makes an overview of the political parties in Germany. Based on the assessment, the country has a democratic, multiparty political system. The change of power between the political parties has not been taking place frequently. Christian Democratic Union (CDU) and its affiliate party, Christian Social Union (CSU) have been ruling since 2005.

In addition, the report assesses the poverty and inequality levels in Germany. The analysis indicates that the country’s poverty level is low based on international standards. Although the country has considerable wealth and income inequality, the gap has been reducing. Thus, the aforementioned aspects increase the attractiveness of the Germany as an investment market by Packages-for-Puppies. The report also analyses the employment legislation and labor policies in Germany. The analysis shows that the country has an extensive framework of labor laws, policies and regulations. Thus, Packages-for-Puppies should be cautious to avoid violating them.

The report also explores the trade unions in the country and membership. The results show that Germany has numerous strong trade unions that will influence the operations of Packages-for-Puppies and its relationship with workers. Last, the report contains a reflection of the global issues that will affect the ability for Packages-for-Puppies to expand further in the future. Among the factors that will influence the firm are non-economic issues such as the spread of coronavirus disease, supranational laws such as those established by the International Labor Organization and the European Union and challenges in accessing suitable labor in the targeted countries Germany Population and Economic Performance.

Introduction

Germany is one of the options that Packages-for-Puppies has when considering to open an additional subsidiary in a foreign market within Europe. The first factor that makes it a suitable market is the presence of close economic ties with England. The two countries are members of the European Union and thus, numerous barriers in trade between them have been eliminated (European Commission, 2019). Also, the recent trends indicate that the number of puppies in the country has been increasing rapidly during the recent years.

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In 2010, there were around 5.3 million puppies in the country. By 2018, the number had risen to 9.4 million (. Thus, there is a possibility of increase in the demand for the toy made by Packages-for-Puppies in Germany. Germany’s population and economic factors also influence market prospects for growth. Currently, Germany has a population of approximately 83.75 million persons (Worldmeter, 2020). In 2018, the GDP per capita in the country was $47,603.64 (World Bank, 2020a). Thus, Germany is a market that is worth for Packages-for-Puppies to consider.

Despite this, there are other important factors that influence the performance of a firm in a foreign market. This report analyses the political parties and stability and the levels of poverty and inequality in Germany. Further, it analyzes the employment legislation and labor policies in the country. The report also explores the trade unions and membership in Germany. Last, the report has a reflection of the factors that might affect the success of Packages-for-Puppies when venturing in the foreign countries in the future.

Political Parties

Germany is a socialist, democratic nation with a multiparty political system. The most popular and prominent party currently is the CDU, which is led by the current Chancellor of the country, Angela Merkel (Kinski & Poguntke, 2018, p. 107). Other popular political parties in the country include the Social Democratic Party of Germany, the CSU and the Free Democratic Party. The CDU, alongside its sister party, for instance, CSU, have been ruling the country since 2005 (Kinski & Poguntke, 2018, p. 107). Thus, the country has political stability that does not have major negative impacts on business environment.

Levels of Poverty and Inequality

The poverty rate in Germany based on the World Bank and OECD data has been low. Between 2010 and 2015, the OECD relied on a poverty line of average income of less than $5.50 a day in the analysis of economies. During the period, Germany had a constant poverty rate of 0.2% (OECD Data, 2020). During the same period, the World Bank Data showed that the poverty rate based on a poverty line of average income of less than $1.90 per day was 0.0% (World Bank, 2020b). The country has considerable level of income and wealth inequality. According to statistics from International Monetary Fund (2019), the country’s Gini coefficient index in 2018 was 29%. The relative low rates of inequalities and poverty enhance the conduciveness of doing business in the country Germany Population and Economic Performance.

Employment Legislation and Government Policy

Packages-for-Puppies will need to adhere to a numerous labor laws, regulations and policies established by the German government authorities. Most of the laws and regulations prohibit discrimination. First, the firm must adhere to the Civil Code, which defines the relationship between the employees and employers. For instance, the code prohibits discrimination based on personal factors such as gender. The other laws governing the employee-employer relationships in Germany include the Protection against Dismissal Act, Employment Protection Act, Employment Promotion Act and Federal Paid Leave Act (ILO, 2020). The country also has laws regulating how the firms should support the employees to grow their careers through providing training opportunities. Examples are Act on Part-Time and Fixed-term and the Occupational Training Act. Working Time Act established in the country regulates the maximum number of hours that the employees should work within a day or week (ILO, 2020). The employers are also required to adhere to the Works Constitution Act and the Act on Collective Agreements.

Trade Unions and Membership Levels (150)

Germany has numerous trade unions, the most popular being the Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund. Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund was created in 1949, and is made up of 8 unions. Examples of the member unions are Industriegewerkschaft Metall, Gewerkschaft der Polizei, Eisenbahn- und Verkehrsgewerkschaft and Vereinte Dienstleistungsgewerkschaft. The numbers of members of the unions vary significantly (Fulton, 2020). For instance, Industriegewerkschaft Metall had around 2,270,000 members in 2014. During the same year, Gewerkschaft der Polizei had approximately 175,000 members. In 2018, Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund had around 5.975 members in total (Fulton, 2020).

Deutsche Beamte Bund (dbb) is the second most popular union, which is comprises of 39 members. Examples of the member unions are Deutsche Polizeigewerkschaft, Lokomotivführer, Gewerkschaft Deutscher and Komba Gewerkschaft (Fulton, 2020). The unions have smaller membership numbers that those of Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund. For instance, Deutsche Polizeigewerkschaft, which is one of the key members of dbb, had around 94,000 members in 2014 (Fulton, 2020). In total, dbb had around 1.317 million members in 2018. Another union called Christlicher Gewerkschaftsbund has 14 affiliates, including Free Workers’ Union of Germany and Free Workers’ Union. The country also has non-affiliated unions such as Deutsche Angestellten Gewerkschaft, with total membership members up to 300,000 members (Fulton, 2020). In total all trade unions in Germany had around 7.7 million members in 2017.

Conclusion

Overall, Germany has a high level of political stability that is facilitated by a democratic and multiparty system. The country has one strong political party that has ruled for over a decade. As noted in the analysis, the country’s level of poverty is low based on the assessments by the international bodies such as the World Bank. Germany has a considerable level of income and wealth inequality, but it has been declining. As noted, the country has a wide framework of employment laws and regulations that Packages-for-Puppies needs to understand before making the investment. After investing in the country, its operations and relationships with the employees will be highly influenced by strong trade unions that its workers will be free to join.

Thus, the political stability and low levels of poverty and inequality in Germany are favorable to business ventures while the trade unions and employment legislations provide significant challenges that Packages-for-Puppies will need to overcome. One of the benefits of the German market is that the firm will have access to highly skilled labor needed to support establishment and growth of a subsidiary for manufacturing the toys. However, Packages-for-Puppies has a high risk of being fined if it violates any of the numerous employment laws and regulations.

Reflection

In my view, the success of expansion of Packages-for-Puppies into the German and other foreign markets will be affected by various factors associated with globalization. First, external factors limiting or facilitating flow of goods and services between countries and regions will have a remarkable impact. A good example is the coronavirus disease that has spread throughout the world. The spread of the disease in the European countries has led to decline in the decline of demand for most products as well as movement restrictions (World Bank, 2020c). Currently, there is uncertainty about when the disease will be put in control. The disease is also likely to have an adverse impact in incomes and economic performances of the most affected countries. Thus, I believe that such a problem has a negative impact on the ability of Packages-for-Puppies to plan when to venture into the German market or any other Germany Population and Economic Performance .

Also, the ability for Packages-for-Puppies to venture and succeed in the German market will be influenced by supranational regulations. For instance, the firm will be influenced by ILO policies, such as the restriction for child labor. As well, operating in Germany implies that the firm will increase its reliance on the regulations and laws developed by the EU. However, I believe that Packages-for-Puppies will not struggle to adhere to the international laws and regulations since most of them are already reflected in the national laws established in Germany and the UK.

Packages-for-Puppies may consider expanding into the developing countries through establishment of a subsidiary. After establishment of the subsidiary, the firm may be required to hire employees from those countries. In my view, the main employment challenges the firm might encounter is the shortage of skilled labor if it needs to establish a manufacturing plant. However, most developing countries have plenty of cheap labor that the company can take advantage of.

References

Fulton, L (2020). National Industrial Relations, an update. Labor Research Department and

ETUI. Insert link) [Accessed 14 May 2020]

European Commission (2019). Towards Open and Fair World-Wide Trade. (Insert link)

[Accessed 14 May 2020]

International Labor Organization (ILO). (2020). National Labour Law Profile: Federal Republic

of Germany. http://www.oit.org/ifpdial/information-resources/national-labour-law-profiles/WCMS_158899/lang–en/index.htm [Accessed 14 May 2020]

International Monetary Fund. (2019a). Germany: Selected Issues.

https://www.elibrary.imf.org/view/IMF002/26217-9781498324632/26217-9781498324632/26217-9781498324632_A001.xml?rskey=IW7fAa&result=2&redirect=true [Accessed 14 May 2020]

Kinski, L. & Poguntke, T. (2018). Germany: Political Developments and Data in 2018.

European Consortium for Political Research, 58(1), pp. 105-112.

OECD Data (2020a). Selected indicators for Germany. https://data.oecd.org/germany.htm

[Accessed 14 May 2020]

Statista (2019). Number of Dogs in Germany 2010-2018. (Insert link) [Accessed 14 May 2020]

World Bank (2020a). GDP Per Capita (Current US$). Germany, Netherlands, France. (Insert link) [Accessed 14 May 2020]

World Bank (2020b). Poverty headcount ratio at $1.90 a day (2011 PPP) (% of population) –

Germany, Norway.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY?locations=DE-NO [Accessed 14 May 2020]

World Bank (2020c). World Bank Group and COVID-19 (Coronavirus). (Insert link) [Accessed 14 May 2020]

Worldmeter (2020). Germany population. (Insert link) [Accessed 14 May 2020] Germany Population and Economic Performance.

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