Chronic sadness and a lack of interest in activities once enjoyed are symptoms of Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation, a DSM-V diagnosis. Suicidal ideation, sleep disturbances, and guilt are all common symptoms. Many drugs are teratogens in pregnancy and can cause congenital abnormalities and spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and even death to the mother. A pregnant woman’s access to treatment and medication is severely restricted due to the complexities of the pharmacodynamics and other effects of drugs on her body and the fetus.
Antidepressants are commonly used to treat personality and intellectual disorders. Inhibitors of Selective Serotonin Reuptake (SSRIs), such as Citalopram, are FDA-approved medications (Celexa). In the synaptic cleft, it prevents 5-HT neuronal reuptake. However, there is a risk of drowsiness, dizziness, and sweating. Off-label medications include vortioxetine, a recent regulatory approved drug into the antidepressant family; nevertheless, it has shown potency (Shweiki&Diav‐Citrin, 2018). To date, the drug has shown promising results in the treatment of pregnancy-induced depression; further research is needed before it can be considered a success. Pregnancy-related major depressive disorder can be effectively treated non-pharmacologically through psychotherapy (Snapper et al., 2018). As a result, one’s overall health and well-being improve as symptoms are alleviated and under control.
Teratogenicity and effects on the fetus, such as cardiac malformations, pulmonary hypertension, or poor neonatal adaptation syndrome, are the most important considerations when taking antidepressants during pregnancy. After long-term drugs, especially in the third trimester, fetal death can occur. Non-teratogenicity guidelines will influence the selection of the medication. A link has been found between the FDA-approved drug citalopram and a higher incidence of poor neonatal adaptation syndrome (Bérard et al., 2017). Mutations in critical genes for development can occur during the embryogenic period, leading to congenital disabilities. On the other hand, pregnant women who take vortioxetine face a higher risk of birth defects and relapses of depression. But its main advantage is that it reduces or eliminates depression and has fewer side effects than other antidepressants. However, it has a powerful impact on eradicating pregnant women’s depression.
It is possible to find clinical guidelines for treating pregnancy-related personality disorders and mental retardation. Medication and therapy are two examples of this. Remission is the primary treatment goal in psychotherapy. In the event of a major depressive disorder, a specific medication regimen must be followed. Tricyclic antidepressants such as imipramine, amitriptyline, and nortryptyline are commonly used with SSRIs like Citalopram and escitalopram. Pregnant women with major depressive disorder may benefit from medication and psychotherapy.
Bérard, A., Zhao, J. P., & Sheehy, O. (2017). Antidepressant Use during Pregnancy and the Riskof Major Congenital Malformations in a Cohort of Depressed Pregnant Women: AnUpdatedAnalysisofthe QuebecPregnancy Cohort.BMJOpen,7(1),e013372.
Snapper,L.A.,Hart,K.L.,Venkatesh,K.K.,Kaimal,A.J.,& Perlis,R. H. (2018).ACohortStudy of the Relationship between Individual Psychotherapy and PregnancyOutcomes.Journalofaffective disorders, 239,253-257.
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